When the Achilles tendon ruptures. it gets completely torn by a sudden movement of the ankle/leg. It usually occurs in a tendon that is worn out and has weakened over time and then suddenly tears when there is enough force. It typically occurs during recreational sports that involve running, jumping, and pivoting, such as basketball, soccer or racquet sports. It is most often seen in men in their 30s and 40s. Some medications and medical problems can predispose to having an Achilles rupture.
Ruptured Achilles tendons may result from falling from a height or down a hole. Increasing training intensity abruptly, boosting distance, frequency or duration by more than 10% a week. Failing to stretch before and after exercise. Repetitive training, especially uphill running. Deyhydration, which causes cramping and tightness in the calves. Taking antibiotics. Improper footwear. Explosive movements in competitive sports like basketball, soccer or track & field.
Patients with an Achilles tendon rupture will often complain of a sudden snap in the back of the leg. The pain is often intense. With a complete rupture, the individual will only be ambulate with a limp. Most people will not be able to climb stairs, run, or stand on their toes. Swelling around the calf may occur. Patients may often have had a sudden increase in exercise or intensity of activity. Some patients may have had recent corticosteroid injections or use of fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Some athletes may have had a prior injury to the tendon.
Diagnosis is made by clinical history; typically people say it feels like being kicked or shot behind the ankle. Upon examination a gap may be felt just above the heel unless swelling has filled the gap and the Simmonds' test (aka Thompson test) will be positive; squeezing the calf muscles of the affected side while the patient lies prone, face down, with his feet hanging loose results in no movement (no passive plantarflexion) of the foot, while movement is expected with an intact Achilles tendon and should be observable upon manipulation of the uninvolved calf. Walking will usually be severely impaired, as the patient will be unable to step off the ground using the injured leg. The patient will also be unable to stand up on the toes of that leg, and pointing the foot downward (plantarflexion) will be impaired. Pain may be severe, and swelling is common. Sometimes an ultrasound scan may be required to clarify or confirm the diagnosis. MRI can also be used to confirm the diagnosis.
Non Surgical Treatment
Non-surgical treatment typically involves wearing a brace or cast for the first six weeks following the injury to allow time for the ends of the torn tendon to reattach on their own. Over-the-counter medications, such as ibuprofen or aspirin, may be taken during this time to reduce pain and swelling. Once the tendon has reattached, physical therapy will be needed to strengthen the muscles and tendon. A full recovery is usually made within four to six months.
There are two different types of surgeries; open surgery and percutaneous surgery. During an open surgery an incision is made in the back of the leg and the Achilles tendon is stitched together. In a complete or serious rupture the tendon of plantaris or another vestigial muscle is harvested and wrapped around the Achilles tendon, increasing the strength of the repaired tendon. If the tissue quality is poor, e.g. the injury has been neglected, the surgeon might use a reinforcement mesh (collagen, Artelon or other degradable material). In percutaneous surgery, the surgeon makes several small incisions, rather than one large incision, and sews the tendon back together through the incision(s). Surgery may be delayed for about a week after the rupture to let the swelling go down. For sedentary patients and those who have vasculopathy or risks for poor healing, percutaneous surgical repair may be a better treatment choice than open surgical repair.